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Students who enter the background language learner pathway in Vietnamese in Year 7 may have strong connections to Vietnamese language and culture through family and community, and varying degrees of oracy in Vietnamese. Their textual knowledge developed through English literacy supports the development of literacy in Vietnamese. Skills in analysing, comparing and reflecting on language and culture in both languages are mutually supportive.

Vietnamese language learning and use

Learners use modelled and rehearsed language in familiar and unfamiliar contexts and increasingly generate original and personal language. They create spoken and written texts for a variety of audiences in different contexts. They plan, draft and present imaginative texts, and design interactive events and collaborative tasks. They express ideas and feelings (Tôi thích ăn phở. Tôi thích xem phim hơn đọc sách. Hôm nay tôi vui), exchange opinions (Phim này hay quá. Trường tôi rộng rãi và sạch sẽ), and manage shared activities (Bạn làm bài xong chưa? Làm ơn giải thích chữ này giùm tôi! Tôi đọc cho bạn viết nha). Learners work collaboratively and independently, exploring different modes and genres of communication with particular reference to their current social, cultural and communicative interests. They pool language knowledge and resources to plan, problem-solve, monitor and reflect. Learners explore Vietnamese syntax and structures in a range of texts and begin to use metalanguage by identifying grammatical terms. They make cross-curricular connections and explore intercultural perspectives and experiences through interaction with an increasing range of Vietnamese speakers.

Contexts of interaction

Learners come to the classroom understanding and using Vietnamese within the world of their experience, which is likely to be home and community domains. At this level, topics of discussion include the world of learning, for example, discussing the shift from primary to secondary school, the concepts of home and friendship, shared events and leisure activities. Learners contextualise and use their background language and culture as much as possible while socialising and exchanging information. This will not necessarily be characterised by the fluent use of Vietnamese, but rather by the way they use their background knowledge of Vietnamese language and culture in communication. These interactions should be authentic in relating to the world of teenage experience, and performance based. Additional opportunities for interaction are provided through purposeful and integrated use of information and communications technologies (ICT), for example, videoconferencing and online activities such as e-learning.

Texts and resources

Learners work with a range of texts designed for language learning, such as textbooks, audio recordings, teacher-generated materials and online resources. They also use authentic materials such as blogs, newsletters, advertisements, magazines, video clips and apps. Their knowledge is extended through exploration of Vietnamese texts on the internet, and audiovisual materials (for example, đồng dao, ca dao, dân ca, bài hát thiếu nhi (Chúc Mừng Sinh Nhật, Tiếng Chuông Giáng Sinh), phim tài liệu (Luke Nguyen in Vietnam), truyện cổ tích, truyện ngụ ngôn), cultural performances, and community events and activities, for example, tết Nguyên đán, tết Trung thu. In particular, as background language learners they are also likely to engage with bilingual, subtitled and captioned texts.

Features of Vietnamese language use

Learners recognise and use features of the Vietnamese sound and writing systems, including tones and tone markers, and apply appropriate pronunciation and spelling rules in spoken and written texts. They apply elements of Vietnamese grammar to the production of texts, such as appropriate word order, common nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and conjunctions, to describe people, actions and events (Tôi cao và ốm. Tôi có mắt đen. Bạn Lan học giỏi và hát hay. Ngày Tết có múa lân), express courtesy and opinions (Thưa ông bà/ba mẹ/thầy cô. Làm ơn cho tôi mượn tập! Cảm ơn bạn. Học tiếng Việt vui quá), and link ideas and information in different types of affirmative, negative and interrogative sentences (Tôi thích xem phim hơn đọc sách. Tôi biết nói nhưng không biết viết tiếng Việt. Bạn sinh ở Úc hay ở Việt Nam?…). They understand ways in which the English language works as a system and how English is similar to and different from Vietnamese. They make connections between texts and cultural contexts, identifying how cultural values and perspectives are embedded in language and how language choices determine ways in which people, issues and circumstances are represented.

Level of support

Learners have varying degrees of Vietnamese oracy and literacy, and are supported through multilevel and differentiated tasks. Support includes scaffolding, modelling and monitoring, explicit instruction and feedback, structured activities for practising new language, and the use of gesture and movement. Students are supported to develop autonomy as language learners and users, and to self-monitor and adjust their language use in response to their experience in diverse contexts. Opportunities to review and consolidate knowledge are an important component of learning at this level.

The role of English

Vietnamese is the main language of instruction and interaction. Vietnamese and English may be used when discussing concepts, functions and structures relating to language use, and when exchanging and comparing experiences in learning Vietnamese and English. English may be used for conceptually demanding explanations and discussions, particularly when making connections between Vietnamese and other languages and cultures. Learners are encouraged to reflect on cultural values and practices and how these relate to their own sense of identity from a bilingual perspective.

Years 7 and 8 Content Descriptions


Socialise and interact with peers and the teacher to exchange information on topics relating to self, family, friends and interests, and to express opinions, likes and dislikes

[Key concepts: family, friendship, home; Key processes: interacting, socialising, describing] (ACLVIC001 - Scootle )

Participate in guided and shared activities, such as role-plays, performances and presentations, that involve planning, deciding, making arrangements and completing transactions

[Key concepts: task, performance, presentation; Key processes: planning, deciding, making arrangements] (ACLVIC002 - Scootle )

Interact with peers in class routines and exchanges by asking and responding to questions, following instructions and requesting support, for example, by asking for repetition, rephrasing and explanation

[Key concepts: routines, roles; Key processes: questioning, contributing, responding] (ACLVIC003 - Scootle )


Identify and use information such as topic, main ideas and specific points in a range of spoken, written, visual, digital and multimodal texts

[Key concept: information; Key processes: obtaining, reading, listening, classifying] (ACLVIC004 - Scootle )

Present information and ideas relating to personal, social and natural worlds in spoken, written, digital and multimodal forms using modelled language structures

[Key concepts: self, community, environment; Key processes: composing, presenting, informing] (ACLVIC005 - Scootle )


Engage with a range of imaginative texts, including multimodal and digital texts, such as cartoons, folk tales, picture books, comics, poems and songs, and identify and describe key elements such as theme, setting, characters and actions

[Key concepts: imagination, theme, characters; Key processes: identifying, describing, responding] (ACLVIC006 - Scootle )

Create texts, including multimodal and digital texts, or adapt familiar imaginative texts for a range of audiences, using modelled language structures and different modes of presentation to enhance effect

[Key concepts: adaptation, mode, presentation; Key processes: re-creating, presenting, experimenting] (ACLVIC007 - Scootle )


Translate and interpret short texts from Vietnamese into English and vice versa, identifying aspects that are similar or different and words or phrases that translate easily or with difficulty

[Key concepts: equivalence, representation; Key processes: translating, identifying] (ACLVIC008 - Scootle )

Create a range of bilingual texts and resources such as captions, signs, posters, digital picture dictionaries or menus to assist language learning in the classroom and in the school community

[Key concepts: meaning, equivalence; Key processes: creating, translating] (ACLVIC009 - Scootle )


Systems of language

Recognise the features of the Vietnamese sound and writing system, including tones and tone markers, and explore Vietnamese pronunciation and spelling rules

[Key concepts: sound and writing system, pronunciation; Key processes: recognising, comparing] (ACLVIU012 - Scootle )

Develop knowledge of common grammatical elements and structures such as nouns, personal pronouns, adjectives, verbs, compound words, adverbs of frequency, conjunctions, statements, negations and questions, to describe events, actions and qualities of people and objects, and to express courtesy and opinions

[Key concepts: nouns, adjectives, verb forms, word order; Key processes: understanding, applying] (ACLVIU013 - Scootle )

Language variation and change

Recognise some of the common variations in Vietnamese language used in different settings and contexts, for example, at home, at school, at the market or in the bank

[Key concepts: register, context; Key processes: recognising, comparing, analysing] (ACLVIU015 - Scootle )

Recognise the dynamic nature of the Vietnamese language and how it has changed over time through interaction with other languages and cultures

[Key concepts: dynamism, influence; Key processes: comparing, analysing] (ACLVIU016 - Scootle )

Role of language and culture

Identify connections between cultural practices and language use in intercultural exchange, recognising how meaning may be culturally specific

[Key concepts: interdependence, meaning; Key processes: reflecting, comparing, making connections] (ACLVIU017 - Scootle )

Years 7 and 8 Achievement Standards

By the end of Year 8, students use written and spoken Vietnamese to interact with peers and the teacher to exchange personal information (for example, Em tên Nam. Em mười hai tuổi. Em sinh ở Úc), describe feelings (for example, Em vui/hạnh phúc) and express preferences (for example, Em thích chơi thể thao. Em thích ăn phở hơn hủ tíu). When participating in collaborative activities and classroom routines, they use modelled language to complete transactions, to ask and respond to questions (for example, Bạn học trường nào? Gia đình tôi có bốn người), to follow instructions (for example, Các em hãy chú ý/ chép bài này vào tập!), to request support and permission (for example, Xin cô vui lòng lặp lại/giải thích chữ này. Thưa thầy/cô, cho em đi vệ sinh), and to make arrangements (for example, Thứ Bảy này mình đi coi phim nha). When interacting, they use the features of the sound system, including tones, to pronounce words and expressions, and form affirmative (for example, Em ăn cơm), negative (for example, Em không ăn cơm), interrogative (for example, Em ăn cơm không?) and imperative (for example, Ăn cơm đi!) sentences. Students locate specific information in a range of texts and present information and ideas related to personal, social and natural worlds in spoken, written and digital forms using modelled language structures. They share their responses to a range of imaginative texts by identifying and describing key elements and expressing opinions. They create or adapt familiar imaginative texts for a range of audiences, using common adverbs of sequence such as trước hết, kế đến and sau cùng to organise and link ideas. They use personal pronouns (for example, tôi, bạn, em, con, anh, chị, cô, ông, bà), nouns (for example, bạn, học sinh, thầy giáo, cô giáo, cha mẹ, cái bàn, cây viết, con chó, trái cam), adjectives (for example, già, trẻ, lớn, nhỏ, tốt, hiền, thông minh, chăm chỉ), verbs (for example, ăn, uống, ngủ, nói, đọc, học, chạy, đi bộ), adverbs (for example, hay, giỏi, nhanh, chậm) and conjunctions (for example, và, hay, vì, nhưng). They apply rules of the Vietnamese writing system to spell familiar words, including tone markers. They translate and interpret short texts, identifying words that are not easily translated, such as cúng, bánh chưng/bánh tét, and create bilingual texts to support their own learning and for the school community. They compare ways of communicating in Vietnamese and English and explain how their own biography influences their cultural identity and ways of communicating.

Students identify the tones of spoken and written Vietnamese. They identify Vietnamese sound–letter relationships, the formation of consonants clusters (for example, ch, nh, th, tr, ph), diphthongs (for example, ai, ao, au), triphthongs (for example, oai, ươi), and vowel–consonant combinations such as an, am, ac, at. They compare the structural and language features of Vietnamese and English in personal, informative and imaginative texts, identifying audience and purpose. They describe how language use varies according to setting and context. Students provide examples of how the Vietnamese language has changed over time, identifying Vietnamese words that have emerged through contact with other languages, for example, cà rốt, cà phê, căn-tin. They identify cultural practices that are embedded in language use and communication styles, such as use of the terms dạ/thưa to express politeness and respect.