# How to find two prime factors of a number python

My current code:

``````import math
def factorMe(value):
last = int(math.sqrt(value)+1)
for i in range(2,last):
if value %i ==0:
return (i,int(value/i))
``````

My code can meet most test case; But if the input is 603091532958059 then the answer will be (24557917, 24557927); But it will take more than 1 second to finish (Time limit exceeded);

Any suggestion? Thank you!

kvorobiev

asked Oct 27, 2017 at 9:28

2

To speed up your code you could use Fermat's factorization method, as @PM 2Ring told in comments. Try following code

``````import math
def factorMe(value):
last = int(math.sqrt(value)+1)
# check if value is even
if value % 2 == 0:
return (2, int(value / 2))
# value is odd number
a = int(math.sqrt(value)) + 1
b2 = int(a * a - value)
b = int(math.sqrt(b2))
while b ** 2 != int(b2):
a += 1
b2 = a * a - value
b = int(math.sqrt(b2))
return (int(a - math.sqrt(b2)), int(a + math.sqrt(b2)))

v = 603091532958059
%timeit r = factorMe(v)
print(r)

100000 loops, best of 3: 2.15 µs per loop
(24557917, 24557927)
``````

answered Oct 27, 2017 at 10:27

kvorobievkvorobiev

• Introduction
• What is a prime factor of a number?
• Steps to find the prime factors of a number
• Examples of Printing the Prime Factors of a Number in Python
• 1. Prime Factor of a number in Python using While and for loop
• 2. using for loop only
• 3. Prime Factor Of A Number In Python using while loop only
• Conclusion

## Introduction

In this article, we will see a python program to print all the prime factors of the given number. If a number is a prime number and perfectly divides the given number then that number is said to be a prime factor of the given number. Here, we will see what is a prime factor, a method to find a prime factor, and the python program.

## What is a prime factor of a number?

Prime factors of a number are the prime number which on multiplying together gives the number. we can check the prime factor of a number by two conditions:

• The number should be a prime number.
• The number should divide the number perfectly.

1. Let the number be denoted by num.
2. while num is divisible by 2, we will print 2 and divide the num by 2.
3. After step 2, num must be always odd.
4. Start a loop from I = 3 to the square root of n. If i divide num, print i, and divide num by i. After i fail to divide num, increment the i value by 2 and continue.
5. If num is a prime number and is greater than 2, then the num cannot become 1.
6. So, print num if it is greater than 2.

## Examples of Printing the Prime Factors of a Number in Python

Let us understand the program for prime factors of the number in details with the help of different examples:

### 1. Prime Factor of a number in Python using While and for loop

In this program, We will be using while loop and for loop both for finding out the prime factors of the given number. we will import the math module in this program so that we can use the square root function in python. After that, we will apply the loop and try to find the prime factors of the given number.

```# python program to print prime factors

import math
def primefactors(n):
#even number divisible
while n % 2 == 0:
print (2),
n = n / 2

#n became odd
for i in range(3,int(math.sqrt(n))+1,2):

while (n % i == 0):
print (i)
n = n / i

if n > 2:
print (n)

n = int(input("Enter the number for calculating the prime factors :\n"))
primefactors(n)
```

Output:

``````Enter the number for calculating the prime factors :
650
2
5
5
13``````

Explanation:

Here firstly we have imported the math library from the python module. Secondly, we have taken the input n as the number and called the function primefactors(). Thirdly, we have taken primefactors() as the function and applied while loop and checked if the modulo of the number is coming 0 by dividing it by 2. Fourthly, the while loop will be executed till the number is even and divisible by 2 and printing it and divide the number by 2 at each iteration. After that, we will apply the for loop from ‘i=3’ till the square root of n+1. Then again we will apply while loop inside the for loop and check the condition. At last, if n is greater than 2 then we have printed the number. Hence, all the prime factors of the number get printed.

### 2. using for loop only

In this program, We will be using for loop only for finding out the prime factors of the given number. we will be applying multiple for loops and try to find the prime factors of the given number.

```#using for loop

n = int(input("Enter the number for calculating the prime factors :\n"))
for i in range(2,n + 1):
if n % i == 0:
count = 1
for j in range(2,(i//2 + 1)):
if(i % j == 0):
count = 0
break
if(count == 1):
print(i)
```

Output:

``````Enter the number for calculating the prime factors :
350
2
5
7``````

Explanation:

In this example, we will be using for loop only. Firstly, we have taken the input from the user as n. Secondly, we have applied the for loop from i=2 to i=n+1. Then, we will check if the modulo of the value of i and number is equal to 0. Then we keep the count value = 1 and again apply the for loop inside the for loop from j=2 to j=i//2+1. and check the given if condition. if the condition satisfies count value is set to 0 and we break the statement. We come out of the for loop and check the condition if count ==1 and print the value of i. hence the primefactors are printed with the single-single value of them.

``````NOTE:

Suppose we take input as 650 : the prime factors are 2,5,5,13
so, it will print 2,5,13 as all integers one time.
``````

### 3. Prime Factor Of A Number In Python using while loop only

In this program, We will be using a while loop only for finding out the prime factors of the given number. we will be applying multiple while loops and try to find the prime factors of the given number.

```#using while loop

n = int(input("Enter any Number for calculating the prime factors: "))
i = 1

while(i <= n):
c = 0
if(n % i == 0):
j = 1
while(j <= i):
if(i % j == 0):
c = c + 1
j = j + 1

if (c == 2):
print(i)
i = i + 1
```

Output:

``````Enter any Number for calculating the prime factors: 350
2
5
7``````

Explanation:

In this example, we will be using a while loop only. Firstly, we have taken the input from the user as n. Secondly, we will set i value as 1. Thirdly, we will apply a while loop with checking condition as i should be less than or equal to n. Inside the loop, we will set the c value as 0 and apply the if and while the condition in it. At last, we will be checking if the value of c becomes equal to 2 then we print the value of i. hence, the prime factors are printed with the single-single value of them.

``````NOTE:

Suppose we take input as 650 : the prime factors are 2,5,5,13
so, it will print 2,5,13 as all integers one time.``````

## Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have seen how to find the prime factors of the number with 3 different methods. All the methods are explained in detail with the help of examples and their explanation. You can use any method which you like according to your need.

### How do you find two prime factors of a number?

Follow the below steps to find the prime factors of a number using the division method:.
Step 1: Divide the given number by the smallest prime number. ... .
Step 2: Again, divide the quotient by the smallest prime number..
Step 3: Repeat the process, until the quotient becomes 1..
Step 4: Finally, multiply all the prime factors..

### How do you find the prime factor of a number in Python?

Example - 2 Python program to find the largest prime factor of a given number..
def largest_prime_factor(n):.
i = 2..
while i * i <= n:.
if n % i:.
i += 1..
n //= i..
return n..

### How do you check if 2 is a prime number in Python?

We check if num is exactly divisible by any number from 2 to num - 1 . If we find a factor in that range, the number is not prime, so we set flag to True and break out of the loop. Outside the loop, we check if flag is True or False . If it is True , num is not a prime number.

### How do you factor a number in Python?

factorize(n) returns all prime factors of the given value n . As you can see, it first makes an Eratosthenes sieve for n and then uses a list comprehension to return all values in the sieve that are factors of n .